§LLHD Language Reference

This document specifies the low-level hardware description language. It outlines the architecture, structure, and instruction set, and provides usage examples.


§Modules

At the root of the LLHD hierarchy, a module represents an entire design. It is equivalent to one single LLHD assembly file on disk, or one in-memory design graph. Modules consist of functions, processes, entities, and external unit declarations as outlined in the following sections. Two or more modules can be combined using the linker, which substitutes external declarations (declare ...) with an actual unit definition. A module is called self-contained if it contains no external unit declarations.

§Names

Names in LLHD follow a scheme similar to LLVM. The language distinguishes between global names, local names, and anonymous names. Global names are visible outside of the module. Local names are visible only within the module, function, process, or entity they are defined in. Anonymous names are purely numeric local names whose numbering is not preserved across IR in-memory and on-disk representations.

Example Regex Description
@foo @[a-zA-Z0-9_\.\\]+ Global name visible outside of the module, function, process, or entity.
%foo %[a-zA-Z0-9_\.\\]+ Local name visible only within module, function, process, or entity.
%42 %[0-9]+ Anonymous local name.

Names are UTF-8 encoded. Arbitrary code points beyond letters and numbers may be represented as sequences of \xx bytes, where xx is the lower- or uppercase hexadecimal representation of the byte. E.g. the local name foo$bar is encoded as %foo\24bar.

§Units

Designs in LLHD are represented by three different constructs (called “units”): functions, processes, and entities. These capture different concerns arising from the need to model silicon hardware, and is in contrast to IRs targeting machine code generation, which generally only consist of functions.

The language differentiates between how instructions are executed in a unit:

Furthermore it differentiates how time passes during the execution of a unit:

The following table provides an overview of the three IR units, which are detailed in the following sections:

Unit Paradigm Timing Models
Function control-flow immediate Ephemeral computation in zero time
Process control-flow timed Behavioural circuit description
Entity data-flow timed Structural circuit description

§Functions

Functions represent control-flow executing immediately and consist of a sequence of basic blocks and instructions:

func <name> (<ty1> <arg1>, ...) <retty> {
    <bb1>
    ...
    <bbN>
}

A function has a local or global name, input arguments, and a return type. The first basic block in a function is the entry block. Functions must contain at least one basic block. Terminator instructions may either branch to another basic block or must be the ret instruction. The argument to ret must be of the return type <retty>. Functions are called using the call instruction. Functions may not contain instructions that suspend execution (wait and halt), may not interact with signals (prb, drv, sig), and may not instantiate entities/processes (inst).

§Example

The following function computes the Fibonacci series for a 32 bit signed integer number N:

func @fib (i32 %N) i32 {
%entry:
    %one = const i32 1
    %0 = sle i32 %N, %one
    br %0, %recursive, %base
%base:
    ret i32 %one
%recursive:
    %two = const i32 2
    %1 = sub i32 %N, %one
    %2 = sub i32 %N, %two
    %3 = call i32 @fib (i32 %1)
    %4 = call i32 @fib (i32 %2)
    %5 = add i32 %3, %4
    ret i32 %5
}

§Processes

Processes represent control-flow executing in a timed fashion and consist of a sequence of basic blocks and instructions. They are used to represent a procedural description of a how a circuit’s output signals change in reaction to changing input signals.

proc <name> (<in_ty1> <in_arg1>, ...) -> (<out_ty1> <out_arg1>, ...) {
    <bb1>
    ...
    <bbN>
}

A process has a local or global name, input arguments, and output arguments. Input arguments may be used with the prb instruction. Output arguments must be of signal type (T$) and may be used with the drv instruction. The first basic block in a process is the entry block. Processes must contain at least one basic block. Terminator instructions may either branch to another basic block or must be the halt instruction. Processes are instantiated in entities using the inst instruction. Processes may not contain instructions that return execution (ret) and may not instantiate entities/processes (inst).

Processes may be used to behaviorally model a circuit, as is commonly done in higher-level hardware description languages such as SystemVerilog or VHDL. As such they may represent a richer and more abstract set of behaviors beyond what actual hardware can achieve. One of the tasks of a synthesizer is to transform processes into entities, resolving implicitly modeled state-keeping elements and combinatorial transfer functions into explicit register and gate instances. LLHD aims to provide a standard way for such transformations to occur.

§Example

The following process computes the butterfly operation in an FFT combinatorially with a 1ns delay:

proc @bfly (i32$ %x0, i32$ %x1) -> (i32$ %y0, i32$ %y1) {
%entry:
    %x0v = prb i32$ %x0
    %x1v = prb i32$ %x1
    %0 = add i32 %x0v, %x1v
    %1 = sub i32 %x0v, %x1v
    %d = const time 1ns
    drv i32$ %y0, %0, %d
    drv i32$ %y1, %1, %d
    wait %entry, %x0, %x1
}

§Entities

Processes represent data-flow executing in a timed fashion and consist of a set of instructions. They are used to represent hierarchy in a design, as well as a data-flow description of how a circuit’s output signals change in reaction to changing input signals.

entity <name> (<in_ty1> <in_arg1>, ...) -> (<out_ty1> <out_arg1>, ...) {
    <inst1>
    ...
    <instN>
}

Eventually every design consists of at least one top-level entity, which may in turn call functions or instantiate processes and entities to form a design hierarchy. There are no basic blocks in an entity. All instructions are considered to execute in a schedule implicitly defined by their data dependencies. Dependency cycles are forbidden (except for the ones formed by probing and driving a signal). The order of instructions is purely cosmetic and does not affect behaviour.

§Example

The following entity computes the butterfly operation in an FFT combinatorially with a 1ns delay:

entity @bfly (i32$ %x0, i32$ %x1) -> (i32$ %y0, i32$ %y1) {
    %x0v = prb i32$ %x0
    %x1v = prb i32$ %x1
    %0 = add i32 %x0v, %x1v
    %1 = sub i32 %x0v, %x1v
    %d = const time 1ns
    drv i32$ %y0, %0, %d
    drv i32$ %y1, %1, %d
}

§External Units

External units allow an LLHD module to refer to functions, processes, and entities declared outside of the module itself. The linker can then be used to resolve these declarations to actual definitions in another module.

declare <name> (<in_ty1>, ...) <retty>              ; function declaration
declare <name> (<in_ty1>, ...) -> (<out_ty1>, ...)  ; process/entity declaration

§Basic Blocks

A basic block has a name and consists of a sequence of instructions. The last instruction must be a terminator; all other instructions must not be a terminator. This ensures that no control flow transfer occurs within a basic block, but rather control enters at the top and leaves at the bottom. A basic block may not be empty. Functions and processes contain at least one basic block.

%<bb_name>:
    <inst1>
    ...
    <instN>
    <terminator>

§Type System

§Overview

The following table shows the types available in LLHD. These are outlined in more detail in the following sections.

Type Description
void The unit type (e.g. instruction that yields no result).
time A simulation time value.
iN Integer of N bits, signed or unsigned.
nN Enumeration of N distinct values.
lN Logical value of N bits (IEEE 1164).
T* Pointer to a value of type T.
T$ Signal of a value of type T.
[N x T] Array containing N elements of type T.
{T1,T1,...} Structured data containing fields of types T0, T1, etc.

§Void Type (void)

The void type is used to represent the absence of a value. Instructions that do not return a value are of type void. There is no way to construct a void value.

§Time Type (time)

The time type represents a simulation time value as a combination of a real time value in seconds, a delta value representing infinitesimal time steps, and an epsilon value representing an absolute time slot within a delta step (used to model SystemVerilog scheduling regions). It may be constructed using the const time instruction, for example:

%0 = const time 1ns 2d 3e

§Integer Type (iN)

The iN type represents an integer value of N bits, where N can be any non-zero positive number. There is no sign associate with integer values. Rather, separate instructions are available to perform signed and unsigned operations, where applicable. Integer values may be constructed using the const iN instruction, for example:

%0 = const i1 1
%1 = const i32 9001
%2 = const i1234 42

§Enumeration Type (nN)

The nN type represents an enumeration value which may take one of N distinct states. This type is useful for modeling sum types such as the enumerations in VHDL, and may allow for more detailed circuit analysis due to the non-power-of-two number of states the value can take. The values for nN range from 0 to N-1. Enumeration values may be constructed using the const nN instruction, for example:

%0 = const n1 0  ; 0 is the only state in n1
%1 = const n4 3  ; 3 is the last state in n4

§Logic Type (lN)

The lN type represents a collection of N wires each carrying one of the nine logic values defined by IEEE 1164. This type is useful to model the actual behavior of a logic circuit, where individual bits may be in other states than just 0 and 1:

Symbol Meaning
U uninitialized
X strong drive, unknown logic value
0 strong drive, logic zero
1 strong drive, logic one
Z high impedance
W weak drive, unknown logic value
L weak drive, logic zero
H weak drive, logic one
- don’t care

This type allows for the modeling of high-impedance and wired-AND/-OR signal lines. It is not directly used in arithmetic, but rather various conversion instructions should be used to translate between lN and the equivalent iN, explicitly handling states not representable in iN. Typically this would involve mapping an addition result to X when any of the input bits is X. Logic values may be constructed using the const lN instruction, for example:

%0 = const l1 "U"
%1 = const l8 "01XZHWLU"

§Pointer Type (T*)

The T* type represents a pointer to a memory location which holds a value of type T. LLHD offers a very limited memory model where pointers may be used to load and store data in distinct memory slots. No bit casts or reinterpretation casts are possible. Pointers are obtained by allocating variables on the stack, which may then be accessed by load and store instructions:

%init = const i8 42
%ptr = var i8 %init
%0 = ld i8* %ptr
%1 = mul i8 %0, %0
st i8* %ptr, %1

Note: It is not yet clear whether LLHD will provide alloc and free instructions to create and destroy memory slots in an infinite heap data structure.

§Signal Type (T$)

The T$ type represents a physical signal which carries a value of type T. Signals correspond directly to wires in a physical design, and are used to model propagation delays and timing. Signals are used to carry values across time steps in the LLHD execution model. Signals are obtained by creating them in an entity, which may then be probed for the current value and driven to a new value:

%init = const i8 42
%wire = sig i8 %init
%0 = prb i8$ %wire
%1 = mul i8 %0, %0
%1ns = const time 1ns
drv i8$ %wire, %1, %1ns

§Array Type ([N x T])

The [N x T] type represents a collection of N values of type T, where N can be any positive number, including zero. All elements of an array have the same type. An array may be constructed using the [...] instruction:

%0 = const i16 1
%1 = const i16 42
%2 = const i16 9001
%3 = [i16 %0, i16 %1, i16 %2]  ; [1, 42, 9001]
%4 = [3 x i16 %0]              ; [1, 1, 1]

Individual values may be obtained or modified with the extf/insf instructions. Subranges of the array may be obtained or modified with the exts/inss instructions.

§Struct Type ({T0,T1,...})

The {T0,T1,...} type represents a struct of field types T0, T1, etc. Fields in LLHD structs are unnamed and accessed by their respective index, starting from zero. A struct may be constructed using the {...} instruction:

%0 = const i1 1
%1 = const i8 42
%2 = const time 10ns
%3 = {i1 %0, i8 %1, time %2}  ; {1, 42, 10ns}

Individual fields may be obtained or modified with the extf/insf instructions.

§Instructions

§Overview

The following table shows the full instruction set of LLHD. The flags indicate if an instruction

Instruction Flags Description
Values
const F P E Construct a constant value
alias F P E Assign a new name to a value
[...] F P E Construct an array
{...} F P E Construct a struct
insf inss F P E Insert elements, fields, or bits
extf exts F P E Extract elements, fields, or bits
mux F P E Choose from an array of values
Bitwise
not F P E Unary logic
and or xor F P E Binary logic
shl shr F P E Shift left or right
Arithmetic
neg F P E Unary arithmetic
add sub F P E Binary arithmetic
smul sdiv smod srem F P E Binary signed arithmetic
umul udiv umod urem F P E Binary unsigned arithmetic
Comparison
eq neq F P E Equality operators
slt sgt sle sge F P E Signed relational operators
ult ugt ule uge F P E Unsigned relational operators
Control Flow
phi F P Reconvergence node
br F P T Branch to a different block
call F P E Call a function
ret F P T Return from a function
wait P T Suspend execution
halt P T Terminate execution
Memory
var F P Allocate memory
ld F P Load value from memory
st F P Store value in memory
Signals
sig E Create a signal
prb E P Probe value on signal
drv E P Drive value of signal
Structural
reg E Create a storage element
del E Delay a signal
con E Connect two signals
inst E Instantiate a process/entity

§Working with Values

§Constant Value (const)

The const instruction is used to introduce a constant value into the IR. The first version constructs a constant integer value, the second a constant integer signal, and the third a constant time value.

%result = const iN <int>
%result = const iN$ <int>
%result = const time <time>
§Example

A constant 32 bit integer with value 42 may be constructed as follows:

%0 = const i32 42
%1 = const i32$ 42
; type(%0) = i32
; type(%1) = i32$

A constant time with value 1s+3d+7e may be constructed as follows:

%0 = const time 1s 3d 7e

§Value Renaming (alias)

The alias instruction is used to assign a new name to a value.

%result = alias T %value
§Example

A value %0 may be aliased under name foo as follows:

%0 = const i32 42
%foo = alias i32 %0

§Array Construction ([...])

Array values may be constructed in two ways. The first constructs a uniform array where each element has the same value. The second constructs an array with different values for each element. Every element in an array must have the same type.

%result = [N x T %value]
%result = [T %value1, ..., T %valueN]
§Example

An array of 9001 zeros of 8 bits each may be constructed as follows:

%0 = const i8 0
%1 = [9001 x i8 %0]
; type(%1) = [9001 x i8]

An array with three different 16 bit values may be constructed as follows:

%0 = const i16 9001
%1 = const i16 42
%2 = const i16 1337
%3 = [i16 %0, i16 %1, i16 %2]
; type(%3) = [3 x i16]

§Struct Construction ({...})

Struct values may be constructed in the following way:

%result = {T1 %value1, ..., TN %valueN}
§Example

A struct with three fields of different types may be constructed as follows:

%0 = const i1 0
%1 = const i42 9001
%2 = const time 1337s
%3 = {i1 %0, i42 %1, time %2}
; type(%3) = {i1, i42, time}

§Inserting Elements, Fields, or Bits (insf inss)

TODO(fschuiki): Update to current names/semantics.

The insert instruction may be used to change the value of fields of structs, elements of arrays, or bits of integers. It comes in two variants: insert element operates on single elements, while insert slice operates on a slice of consecutive elements.

%r = insert element <ty> <target>, <index>, <value>
%r = insert slice <ty> <target>, <start>, <length>, <value>

Note that index, start, and length must be integer constants. You cannot pass dynamically calculated integers for these fields.

§Result

The insert instruction yields the modified target as a result, which is of type ty.

§Example

A field of a struct may be modified as follows:

; %0 = {i32 0, i16 0}
%1 = insert element {i32, i16} %0, 0, 42
; %1 = {i32 42, i16 0}

An element of an array may be modified as follows:

; %0 = [i32 0, 0, 0, 0]
%1 = insert element [4 x i32] %0, 2, 42
; %1 = [i32 0, 0, 42, 0]

A bit of an integer may be modified as follows:

; %0 = i32 3
%1 = insert element i32 %0, 3, 1
; %1 = i32 11

A slice of array elements may be modified as follows:

; %0 = [i32 0, 0, 0, 0]
%1 = insert slice [4 x i32] %0, 1, 2, [i32 42, 9001]
; %1 = [i32 0, 42, 9001, 0]

A slice of integer bits may be modified as follows:

; %0 = i32 8
%1 = insert slice i32 %0, 0, 2, 3
; %1 = i32 11

§Extracting Elements, Fields, or Bits (extf exts)

TODO(fschuiki): Update to current names/semantics.

The extract instruction may be used to obtain the value of fields of structs, elements of arrays, or bits of integers. It comes in two variants: extract element operates on single elements, while extract slice operates on a slice of consecutive elements.

%r = extract element <ty> <target>, <index>
%r = extract slice <ty> <target>, <start>, <length>

Note that index, start, and length must be integer constants. You cannot pass dynamically calculated integers for these fields.

§Types

The basic operation of extract is defined on integer, struct, and array types. If the target is a signal or pointer type around a struct or array, the instruction returns a signal or pointer of the selected field or elements.

§Result

The extract element instruction yields the value of the selected field, element, or bit. If the target is a struct the returned type is the index field of the struct. If it is an array the returned type is the array’s element type. If it is an integer the returned type is the single bit variant of the integer (e.g. i1).

The extract slice instruction yields the values of the selected elements or bits. If the target is an array the returned type is the same array type but with length length. If the target is an integer the returned type is the same integer type but with width length.

§Example

A field of a struct may be accessed as follows:

; %0 = {i32 42, i16 9001}
%1 = extract element {i32, i16} %0, 0
; %1 = i32 42

An element of an array may be accessed as follows:

; %0 = [i32 0, 0, 42, 0]
%1 = extract element [4 x i32] %0, 2
; %1 = i32 42

A bit of an integer may be accessed as follows:

; %0 = i32 11
%1 = extract element i32 %0, 3
; %1 = i1 1

A slice of array elements may be accessed as follows:

; %0 = [i32 0, 42, 9001, 0]
%1 = extract slice [4 x i32] %0, 1, 2
; %1 = [i32 42, 9001]

A slice of integer bits may be accessed as follows:

; %0 = i32 11
%1 = extract slice i32 %0, 0, 2
; %1 = i2 3
§Signals

The extract instruction may be used to dissect integer, struct, and array signals into smaller subsignals that alias the selected bits, field, or elements and may then be driven individually.

A subsignal of an integer signal may be obtained as follows:

; %0 = sig i32
%1 = extract element i32$ %0, 3
%2 = extract slice i32$ %0, 0, 2
; typeof(%1) = i1$
; typeof(%2) = i2$

A subsignal of a struct signal may be obtained as follows:

; %0 = sig {i32, i16}
%1 = extract element {i32, i16}$ %0, 0
; typeof(%1) = i32$

A subsignal of an array signal may be obtained as follows:

; %0 = sig [4 x i32]
%1 = extract element [4 x i32]$ %0, 2
%2 = extract slice [4 x i32]$ %0, 1, 2
; typeof(%1) = i32$
; typeof(%2) = [2 x i32]$
§Pointers

The extract instruction may be used to obtain a pointer to a struct field, or a pointer to one or more array fields. These pointers alias the selected field or elements and may be used in load and store operations.

A pointer to specific bits of an integer may be obtained as follows:

; %0 = var i32
%1 = extract element i32* %0, 3
%2 = extract slice i32* %0, 0, 2
; typeof(%1) = i1*
; typeof(%2) = i2*

A pointer to the field of a struct may be obtained as follows:

; %0 = var {i32, i16}
%1 = extract element {i32, i16}* %0, 0
; typeof(%1) = i32*

A pointer to specific elements of an array may be obtained as follows:

; %0 = var [4 x i32]
%1 = extract element [4 x i32]* %0, 2
%2 = extract slice [4 x i32]$ %0, 1, 2
; typeof(%1) = i32*
; typeof(%2) = [2 x i32]*

§Value Multiplexing (mux)

%result = mux Ta %array, Ts %sel

The mux operation chooses one of an array of values based on a given selector value.

§Bitwise Operators

§Unary Logic (not)

%result = not T %value

The not operation flips each bit of a value.

§Example
%0 = const i1 0
%1 = not i1 %0  ; %1 = 1
§Truth Table for iN
not 0 1
1 0
§Truth Table for lN

TODO

§Binary Logic (and or xor)

%result = and T %lhs, %rhs
%result = or  T %lhs, %rhs
%result = xor T %lhs, %rhs

The and, or, and xor instructions compute the bitwise AND, OR, and XOR of two values, respectively.

§Example
%0 = const i4 0b0011
%1 = const i4 0b0101
%2 = and i4 %0, %1  ; %2 = 0b0001
%3 = or  i4 %0, %1  ; %3 = 0b0111
%4 = xor i4 %0, %1  ; %4 = 0b0110
§Truth Table for iN
and 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
or 0 1
0 0 1
1 1 1
xor 0 1
0 0 1
1 1 0
§Truth Table for lN

TODO

§Shift Left/Right (shl shr)

%result = shl T %base, Th %hidden, Ta %amount
%result = shr T %base, Th %hidden, Ta %amount

The shl and shr instruction shifts a value to the left or right by a given amount. The instruction is transparent to signals and pointers. For example, passing a signal as argument will shift the underlying value and return a signal to the shifted value.

§Example

The operation can be visualized as concatenating the %base and %hidden values, then selecting a slice of the resulting bits or elements starting at the offset determined by the %amount value. For example:

%base = const i8 0b10011001         ; base
%hidden = const i12 0b010110100101  ; hidden
%amount = const i3 6                ; amount

Left shift:

%L = shl i8 %base, i12 %hidden, i3 %amount  ; %L = 0b01010110

; |-base-||--hidden--|
; 10011001010110100101
; >>>>>>|--%L--|

Right shift:

%R = shr i8 %base, i12 %hidden, i3 %amount  ; %R = 0b10010110

; |--hidden--||-base-|
; 01011010010110011001
;       |--%R--|<<<<<<

§Arithmetic Operators

§Unary Arithmetic (neg)

%result = neg T %value

The neg operation computes the two’s complement of a value, effectively flipping its sign.

§Example
%0 = const i8 42
%1 = neg i8 %0  ; %1 = -42

§Binary Arithmetic (add sub smul sdiv smod srem umul udiv umod urem)

%result = add  T %lhs, %rhs
%result = sub  T %lhs, %rhs

%result = smul T %lhs, %rhs
%result = sdiv T %lhs, %rhs
%result = smod T %lhs, %rhs
%result = srem T %lhs, %rhs

%result = umul T %lhs, %rhs
%result = udiv T %lhs, %rhs
%result = umod T %lhs, %rhs
%result = urem T %lhs, %rhs

The add and sub instructions add or subtract two values. The multiplicative operations are available in a signed (s prefix) and unsigned (u prefix) flavor. Input operands are interpreted according to this prefix. The umul smul instructions multiplies two values. The udiv sdiv instructions divides the left-hand side by the right-hand side value. The umod smod and urem srem operations compute the modulo and remainder of the division.

§Comparison Operators

§Equality Comparison (eq neq)

%result = eq  T %lhs, %rhs
%result = neq T %lhs, %rhs

The eq and neq instruction checks for equality or inequality of two values.

§Relational Comparison (slt sgt sle sge ult ugt ule uge)

%result = slt T %lhs, %rhs
%result = sgt T %lhs, %rhs
%result = sle T %lhs, %rhs
%result = sge T %lhs, %rhs

%result = ult T %lhs, %rhs
%result = ugt T %lhs, %rhs
%result = ule T %lhs, %rhs
%result = uge T %lhs, %rhs

The relational operators are available in a signed (s prefix) and unsigned (u prefix) flavor. Input operands are interpreted according to this prefix. The operations performed are as follows:

Signed Unsigned Operation
slt ult <
sgt ugt >
sle ule <=
sge uge >=

§Control Flow

§Phi Node (phi)

%result = phi T [%v1, %bb1], ..., [%vN, %bbN]

The phi instruction is used to implement the φ node in the SSA graph representing the function or process. It produces on of its arguments %v1 to %vN as a result depending on which basic block control flow originated from upon entering the phi instruction’s basic block.

§Branch (br)

br %target                            ; unconditional
br %cond, %target_if_0, %target_if_1  ; conditional

The br instruction transfers control flow to another basic block. In the unconditional case, control flow jumps to the %target. In the conditional case, %cond determines if control is transferred to %target_if_0 (on 0) or %target_if_1 (on 1).

§Call (call)

%result = call Tr <name> (T1 %arg1, ..., TN %argN)

The call instruction transfers control to a function and yields its return value. If used in an entity, the function is re-evaluated whenever any of the input arguments change.

§Return from a Function (ret)

ret           ; return void
ret T %value  ; return a value

The ret instruction returns from a function by transferring control flow to the caller. A function with void return type must contain ret instructions without arguments.

§Suspend Process Execution (wait)

wait %resume_bb, %obs1, ..., %obsN
wait $resume_bb for %time, %obs, ..., %obsN

The wait instruction suspends execution of a process until any of the observed signals %obs1 to %obsN change or optionally a fixed time interval %time has passed. Execution resumes at the basic block %resume_bb.

§Terminate Process Execution (halt)

halt

The halt instruction terminates execution of a process. All processes must eventually halt or consist of an infinite loop.

§Example

This instruction can be used to model HDL processes that will eventually finish executing. For example the SystemVerilog

initial begin : p0
    // ...
end

or VHDL

p0: process
begin
    -- ...
    wait;
end process;

would eventually translate to the following in LLHD:

proc %p0 () -> () {
%entry:
    ; ...
    halt
}

§Memory

§Stack Allocation (var)

%result = var T %init

The var instruction allocates memory on the stack with the initial value %init and returns a pointer to that location.

§Loading from Memory (ld)

%result = ld T* %ptr

The ld instruction loads a value from the memory location %ptr.

§Storing to Memory (st)

st T* %ptr, %value

The st instruction stores a %value to the memory location %ptr.

§Signals

§Creating a Signal (sig)

%result = sig T %init

The sig instruction creates a signal in an entity with the initial value %init and returns that signal.

§Probing the Value on a Signal (prb)

%result = prb T$ %sig

The prb instruction probes the current value of a signal %sig.

§Driving a Value onto a Signal (drv)

drv T$ %sig, %value

The drv instruction drives a %value onto a signal %sig.

§Structure and Hierarchy

§Storage Element (reg)

%result = reg T %init, %value <mode> Tt %trigger, ...
%result = reg T %init, %value <mode> Tt %trigger if Tg %gate, ...

The reg instruction provides a storage element with an initial value %init. The storage element transitions to a new %value when the corresponding trigger (given by a value and mode) fires, and optionally if a gating condition is true. It may only be used inside an entity.

§Example

A rising, falling, and dual-edge triggered flip-flop:

%Q = reg i8 %init, %D rise i1$ %CLK
%Q = reg i8 %init, %D fall i1$ %CLK
%Q = reg i8 %init, %D both i1$ %CLK

A rising-edge triggered flip-flop with active-low reset:

%Q = reg i8 %init, %init low i1$ %RSTB, %D rise i1$ %CLK

A rising-edge triggered enable flip-flop with active-low reset:

%Q = reg i8 %init, %init low i1$ %RSTB, %D rise i1$ %CLK if i1$ %EN

A transparent-low and transparent-high latch:

%Q = reg i8 %init, %D low i1$ %CLK
%Q = reg i8 %init, %D high i1$ %CLK

An SR latch:

%0 = const i1 0
%1 = const i1 1
%Q = reg i1 %0, %0 high i1 %R, %1 high i1 %S

§Wire Delay (del)

%result = del T$ %sig, %delay

The del instruction delays a signal %sig by the %delay. It models a transport delay, meaning that all strictly monotonically increasing events on %sig will eventually be reproduced on %result.

§Short (con)

con T$ %sigA, %sigB

The con instruction connects two signals such that they essentially become one signal. All driven values on one signal will be reflected on the other.

§Instantiate Process/Entity (inst)

inst <target> (Ti1 %in1, ..., TiN %inN) (To1 %out1, ..., ToN %outN)

The inst instruction instantiates a process or entity within the current entity. The target’s input and output signals are connected to %in1, ... and %out1, ..., respectively. This instruction builds design hierarchies.